Wednesday, August 24, 2016

The earth is the near twin – Proxim b. It could not be closer – Gazeta Wyborcza

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Peter Cieśliński Michal Bob Green



             Yes  you can & # x17C; s appearance & # x105;  can & # x107; the sky on the newly discovered  planet, ch & # x15B; displayed by Proxim  & # x119 ;, Alf & # x119; and Bet &  # x119; Centauri

This may look like heaven on newly discovered planet, lighted up by Proxim, Alpha and Beta Centauri (ESO / M. Kornmesser)



Rumors about the discovery of planets similar to Earth, which circulates in the "target zone of life" around a star near the sun, spread two weeks ago. The discovery of planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, has just been officially confirmed.





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Alpha Centauri is the closest star system to us. This is one of the brightest point in the sky in the southern hemisphere. It consists of three bonded to each star. Two of them - labeled A and B - are similar to the Sun and located quite close to each other, they divide them roughly equal to the distance between the Sun and Uranus. Proxima, though poorly lit so that the naked eye can not see it, circling much further and is a small red dwarf. She of the three closest to the Earth.

In October, 2012. Astronomers from the European Southern Observatory reported that discovered the planet Alpha Centauri B the size of Earth, which orbits the star in a very tight orbit. Full lap - the local year - lasts only three days and five hours. Because of the proximity of the star the planet is definitely not like the Earth - on the surface there is a murderous temperature, astronomers estimated at more than 1,200 degrees Celsius. Life, as we know, there is rather impossible.

But astronomers now then they suspected that this is not the only planet in the Alpha Centauri system. - There may be a more distant planet located in the ecosphere [area of ​​life] - commented for "Election" Alexander Wolszczan, the discoverer of the first planets outside the solar system. Ecosphere is called the area of ​​the star where the temperature favors the remaining liquid water. This is the basic condition for the existence of life in the form as we know it.

Proxima, which is the closest

In the latest edition of "Nature" group of researchers from the European Southern Observatory reports that around Proxima circulates twin Earth - rocky glob located in the zone of stellar life.

the closest to the Sun star is smaller and cooler than the Sun, is called. red dwarf. Revolves around two other stars of this system (Alpha Centauri A and B) in a fairly large distance. Star A and B of this system divides the Earth's distance from the light 4.36 years, or 41 trillion km. Proxima is 1.5 trillion km closer to us.

The planet - so far only has a common name Proxima b (the letter "a" is reserved for the stars) - has a mass of about 30 percent. greater than Earth and is located at a distance of 7.5 million km from its star. It orbits it in little more than 11 days. She receives from her about two-thirds of the radiation that Earth receives from the sun, and scientists predict that its surface temperature is approx. -30 Degrees Celsius. Quite cold, but these calculations do not take into account the greenhouse effect, which depends on the thickness and type of atmosphere . If no cushion of greenhouse gases, the Earth also would not be much warmer - barely -20 deg. C.

Is Proxima b has an atmosphere? We should learn this soon, when it begins to operate the telescope James Webb. This successor Kepler telescope, which will allow the observation of extraterrestrial atmospheres of planets, should be launched from the French Guiana in 2018.

But there is a big problem. Type star Proxima Centauri are very active. Emit hundreds of times more X-rays than the sun and more often than send it into space powerful flares. Both phenomena can strip the planet of its atmosphere, and if it begins there to create life - simply annihilate them. Dramatically reduces the chances that any life forms were created there.

On the other hand, the star of this type live many times longer than the type of our sun. Any life will be (or was?) A lot of time to develop there.

How discovered Proxima b?

at the 3.6-meter telescope at La Silla in Chile belonging to the European Southern Observatory's recently installed highly sensitive HARPS spectrograph. It can measure very small changes in speed of the star. As a result, astronomers are able to detect oscillations in the movement of the star caused by the gravitational attraction of a very small, and so rocky planets.

This technique, however, requires constant observation and sophisticated statistical analysis to the measurement data to pick out the signal of the planet and to separate it the different noise. The results must undergo a thorough verification and astronomers usually refrain from announcing the discovery until they are confident the work will be accepted for publication in a refereed writing. It happened after ten years of accurate observations and calculations.

We have a chance there to fly?

the authors of science fiction often placed the action in the system Alpha Centauri, as if on the local planets known for a long time. The history of the Earth expedition to Alpha Centauri system and finding intelligent civilizations described, for example, Stanislaw Lem in "Magellanic Cloud" in 1955.

40 trillion km is a huge distance. If the Earth to the sun reduced to 1 km, is Alpha Centauri to be situated 270 thousand. km away. A farthest earthly object, which launched in the 70s, Voyager 1 is only 120 km. At this rate the trip to Alpha Centauri would take Voyagerowi some 70-80 thousand. years.

But in April of this year, Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, together with a group of eminent scientists announced an ambitious plan to send a probe that could more quickly reach the Alpha Centauri system. Milner has promised to spend on this $ 100 million. The "Breakthrough Starshot" involves sending a probe the size of postage stamp, equipped with a camera and a set of sensors. It has them drive the solar sail area a few meters and weighing just a few grams.

For the correct speed (20 per cent. The speed of light, which is 60 thousand. Km s!) Accelerates probe giant lasers with a capacity of 100 gigawatts installed on the earth. Such miniature probe-driven light would reach Alpha Centauri in 20 years, or even for our generation. They could explore the local solar system and send to Earth images and data, which reach us at light speed a little over four years. Perhaps this project will catch now the wind in the sails.

But maybe ships?

Commission Budget , which allocates resources to NASA, encourages the agency to research drive, which can achieve speeds of up to 100 million km per hour. This has to go to the 100th anniversary of the American landing on the moon, the year 2069th The draft budget calls space agency to draw up a "road map" of such a project within a year.

We do not have any ready-made technology that could disperse anything more solid such speed. Congressmen - after specialists earmarking space agency - are aware of this fact and the report suggests several paths that NASA could follow. Interestingly, there are new ideas.

Among them such as nuclear drive, which is characterized in that the vessel is fired nuclear charge. This project, called Orion, was developed in 1955. By the co-authors of the hydrogen bomb: Cornelius Everett and Stanislaw Ulam, a Polish mathematician born in Lviv. The program was not abandoned for technical reasons, but because of the treaty banning nuclear tests signed in 1963.

Another is the jet engine developed in 1960. By the American physicist Robert W. Bussard. Ramjet is extremely simple in design, have no moving parts, but outside the jet-propelled missiles long-range technical reasons are few applications on Earth. In space, could perform very well. The fuel would be collected by the electromagnetic field of hydrogen, which in space is missing.

Maybe we can fly to Proxima b even in this century?



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Comments (34)


                                 I would recommend trilogy Boruni and Trepka from the mid-50s. One part of this "Proxima". For fans of fantasy is an interesting position.









                                 1 And the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind, saying
    4 Where were you when the foundations of the earth?
    Tell me, if you know wisdom.
    5 Who researched by its skies?
    Do you know who it imposed a rope?
    6 what are the pillars of support?
    who founded the cornerstone
    7 to the delight of the morning stars,
    to the delight of all the sons of God?

    8 Who shut the sea gate, when
    came from the womb, 9 when I
    clouds gave him the clothes, diapers
    a dark original?
    10 broke the size of my law,
    have put Hasp and gate.
    11 and I said, "Thus far, no further!
    here shall your proud waves".

    Have 12 life ordered rankowi,
    appointed place of dawn,
    13 to embrace the ends of the earth,
    by removing sinners?
    14 Changes like sealed clay
    colors like dress.
    15 Sinners light deducted
    and shattered arm lofty.

    16 Have you entered into the sources of the sea?
    you got to the bottom of the Abyss?
    17 Is indicated those gates of death?
    saw the door to the dark?
    18 is zgłębiłeś space land?
    Tell me, do you know all this?

    19 Where is the way the rest of light?
    and where they live darkness,
    20 you failed them in their skies
    and recognized the way to their house?
    21 If you know it wtedyś being born, and the number of
    thy days is huge.

    22 Have you entered into the tanks of snow?
    you seen tanks hail?
    23 In times of anger bury them,
    day skirmishes and war.
    24 Is not the right light sets,
    by sending lightning around the world?

    25 Who dug channels downpour
    way or the cloud of thunder,
    26 that rained on wilderness,
    in the desert completely deserted,
    27 wanting to desert desert sate,
    fund grass growing there?
    28 Does the rain have a father?
    And who gave birth to the drops of dew ?
    29 from whose womb came the ice? Who
    multiplied frost of heaven?
    30 As the water freezes on the stone,
    surface depths of the cuts?

    31 Can you connect the stars of the Pleiades?
    a loose bonds of Orion?
    32 you let this time of the morning star?
    Dipper And you shall bring forth children?
    33 Do you know the laws of heaven,
    if you explain the writing on the ground?
    34 Do you pick up your voice to the clouds,
    to you downpour covered?
    35 Do you send the lightning and go
    with the word: "We are at your service "?
    36 Who ibisowi gave wisdom
    and gave the cock understanding?
    37 Who wisely count the clouds,
    in the heavens gather water
    38 when the soil has hardened on the block
    and the fields turn into lumps?

    39 is lioness prey nałowisz,
    stint voracity lion cubs,
    40 when they live in hiding places, in thickets
    waiting for the evening?
    41 Who provides prey for the raven, when
    young ones cry to God, wandering
    when extremely hungry?

    [the Book of Job 38]







                                 How is it that no one has for ideas generated by some white-red spaceship?










                                 I was there, nothing interesting







                                 Aliens are laughing.









                                 Stop all these stupid visuals!

    All the truth:







                                 Webb telescope is to allow observation of atmosphere "alien planet".
    Can and are there any terrestrial planets, but the hush .. it's about the next article







                                 This artistic vision of the planet's something strangely reminds me of the crematoria "Chronicles of Riddick"









                                 To discover in "No Man's Sky".





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