Although anthrax is a serious infectious disease is not as contagious as Ebola or even tuberculosis – a man not infected with it from a man, but through contact with animals or animal products. Its spores can be used as a biological weapon.
Information about anthrax infection in northern Siberia humans and animals announced on Tuesday the Russian media. On Wednesday, anthrax was found in 23 of the 90 reindeer breeders and members of their families from the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. Most of staying under observation at a hospital in Salekhard.
As a result of anthrax died (August 1) 12-year-old boy; currently none of the people is not in a serious condition, but the condition nineteen defined as the average heavy. The authorities of Tyumen decided to test all newborn babies reindeer breeders, even if you do not show symptoms of the disease.
An expert Viktor Maltsev said the Russian editorial BBC that the cause of the epidemic is unusually high temperatures – almost a month on the Yamal Peninsula temperature reached 35 st. C. previous outbreak of anthrax in the region took place in 1941. it is possible that trapped in the bodies buried in the permafrost bacteria originate from that period. As said spokeswoman Natalya authorities Khlopunova first becomes infected animals and breeders – as is their habit – eating raw meat. Drank blood to sick animals.
Because of anthrax and heat in Yamal fell about 2,300 reindeer. July 25 ordered the evacuation of their breeders and covered quarantine affected area. Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu sent a military plane team of professionals who have to protect the body of dead animals, research and disinfecting action on a large scale (such a large share of disinfecting with helicopters, drones and off-road vehicles have not been conducted so far tundra). Conducted a vaccination campaign animals. Rescuers of the Ministry for. Emergencies are ready in the tundra tent city, which led will be residents of the area covered by the quarantine, and where you can live well in the winter.
anthrax (Latin anthrax) causes a relatively large (4 microns length) bacteria – bacillus anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Its spores are extremely durable and resistant – under normal conditions can survive for decades in permafrost – even hundreds. Some contaminated with spores of pastures considered in the past centuries for the “cursed”.
In the case of animals the main source of infection is feed containing spores. Infection can occur during grazing, and the administration of grass or hay. Carnivorous animals become infected after eating carrion. There are also direct infection if blood or excreta clinical case will go to a fresh wound or mucous membrane.
Produced by Bacillus anthracis toxin interferes with signal transduction pathways in the cell and causes its dying – apoptosis. With the natural orifices of the body flows a dark, low blood coagulation, in which can be seen under a microscope bacilli. Dead animals infected with anthrax should be burned.
People in the 95 percent. cases become infected through damaged skin – touching the flesh of dead animals, his skin or wool, inhalation (breathing in the bacteria or spores) or food (consumption of contaminated meat). Is the most dangerous form of pneumonia – despite treatment with antibiotics large portion of patients die stirred for 2-3 days.
Few is less dangerous intestinal anthrax. Sometimes deadly form of the skin, but often end up on the creation of characteristic black pustules. The most vulnerable are the breeders and the persons employed in the processing of animal raw materials, though, for example, Ernest Hemingway has been infected during the honeymoon (cut his leg).
Because of the durability and deadly effectiveness soldiers turned their attention to anthrax spores already during the First world war. Unusual application had been contaminated with anthrax, about fictional people sent denunciations to the Gestapo by the Army. In reading the Germans appeared troublesome skin lesions, which for a time discouraged occupant reading denunciations.
The Soviet Union conducted research on anthrax at a large scale. In 1979, a secret lab in Sverdlovsk escaped aerosol, which caused illness 79 people – died 68 of them.
Between 16 September and 25 October 2001 in the US were sent containing bacilli of anthrax letters addressed to important institutions. Infection – in 11 cases of pneumonic form – were 22 people, five of them died. For a time postal delivery in the US they were disinfected using ionizing radiation with such high intensity that sent damaging the objects and the envelope and stamp collectors protested. Sent samples of washing powder or bags with pudding aroused panic postal workers, associating “white powder” anthrax.
To prevent anthrax is to combat the disease in animals, the study of meat and other animal materials. There are also several types of vaccines – the first earned in 1881 Louis Pasteur.