Thursday, October 6, 2016

Nobel in chemistry for the creators of the invisible machine – Learning In Poland (PAP)

Designers and builders of the invisible elevators and car, that is, machines running in the world of molecules – they have received this year’s Nobel Prize in chemistry. According to experts, the Nobel laureates are important for the search of new materials.

the Nobel peace prize were Jean-Pierre Sauvage is an honorary Professor of University of Strasbourg and Director of ds research in the French CNRS, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, Professor of chemistry at northwestern University in Evanston (Illinois, USA) and Bernard Lucas Ben Feringa is Professor of organic chemistry at the Dutch University of Groningen.

the names of the winners announced Wednesday in Stockholm, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Three chemists will share equally the prize of 8 million Swedish kronor (about 850 thousand euros).

they were awarded for “design and synthesis of molecular machines”, such as artificial muscles or miniature motors which are required for the development of nanotechnology. As noted by the members of the Academy, Sauvage made the first breakthrough in 1983, when he combined the two molecules in the form of a ring in the chain. Another step was made by Stoddart in 1991, nawlekając a ring on the molecular axis. Feringa and first developed a molecular “motor” in 1999.

the First step on the path to molecular machines made in 1983 by Jean-Pierre Sauvage – through the use of copper ions he managed to combine two molecules of o-rings (fairly short) chain is called katenanem (from the Latin word “catena”, meaning it is a chain). Thanks to the metal ions chemists were able to collapse molecules in other more complex structures such as chains and nodes, resembling a knot, Celtic, rings Boromeuszy whether a node is Solomon.

Another step was taken in 1991, one of the current Nobel laureates Fraser Stoddart – he managed to get rotaksan. Planted molecular ring (poor in electrons) at a thin molecular axis (with the electrons yet) and has shown that he can on that axis to rotate. Among based on rotaksanie works Stoddarta are: molecular lift (allows you to raise the load to a height of 0.7 nm), molecular muscles bent the thin gold plate and computer chip – the memory of the modest capacity of 20 kilobytes in size, but having very small components.

the Third Nobel laureate Bernard L. Feringa was the first man who built a molecular motor. In 1999 he constructed a molecular rotor, rotating constantly in one direction – the latest version is 12 million revolutions per second. With the help of molecular motors, he was able to turn a glass cylinder with a length of 28 microns – 10,000 times more from the engine, and even build nanosamochód four molecular motors are fixed to the molecular frame.

experts believe that from the point of view zawansowania molecular motors are on the same level as the motors in the 30-ies. XIX century. Built electric cars barely revolved, it seemed, interestingly, nobody thought that in the future will be everywhere, will drive pociągom, pralkom, fans, mikserom whether dronom.

molecular Machines “are likely to be used in the development of new materials, sensors and energy storage system”, she said in the explanation of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

in the future these works will have “huge value” – applied in a conversation with PAP, Professor Janusz Lipkowski, Institute of Chemistry of the University of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski in Warsaw. He also noticed that for a long time of a particle was thought that “something is dead”, while Nobel prize winners, built them from cars. However, the term “machine” in the context of the discoveries of Nobel laureates “too modest” because of their potential application is much greater.

molecular Machines is still difficult to use in practice, confirms Professor Robert Hołyst from the Institute of Physical Chemistry PAN. The possibility of their use in any practical applications is significantly reduced through the so-called thermal noise – due to the fact that the particles around us are moving very quickly.

Professor Janusz Jurczak Institute of Organic Chemistry YOU need to cooperate with each of the winners. “With all three we are familiar and have been Dating for a long time. Very open, towarzyskimi colleagues, people who are widely known in the scientific community. This is the absolute scientific elite of the elites. We drank together a bottle of good wine. All three are people who not only play fantastic science, but and live a full life. For example, melomanami,” said RAHR.

this Year’s Nobel prize winners the time and energy consumed in the laboratory. Bernard Lucas Ben Feringa also directs a large research group, which he created from scratch. He teaches and publishes articles (in total – more than 650 have been cited in total over 30 thousand. times). He also owns more than 30 patents. In his spare time he travels the land, which raises horses and grow vegetables. “I love nature. The fact that you can sow the seed, and then eat it a vegetable or watch a blooming flower, really fascinates me. And allows you to stand firmly on the ground, admiring the achievements of nature. This way I know that what we do is quite primitive. And it’s a good counterbalance for my work in the laboratory and in the lecture hall. Just beautiful.”

as hardworking and J. Fraser Stoddart – owner at least 10 patents, author and coauthor of more than a thousand scientific publications, as well as one of the most cited chemists in the world. According to the Institute Filadelfijskiego since January 1997. until August 2007. was the third most frequently cited expert in the field of chemistry (a total of 14 thousand. 38 citation). The chemist also gave thousands of lectures in universities around the world. Over 45 years in the laboratory, which he led, inspiring their imagination and creativity more than four hundred graduate students or young scientists immediately after doktoracie (so-called internships podoktorskim).

the Third rewarded Jean-Pierre Sauvage, in turn, a disciple of another Nobel laureate from France, Jean – Marie Lehna (which Juris received a diploma). 72-year-old French chemist he said in an interview to French, which has already received many awards, but the Nobel Prize is something special and is so prestigious that most scientists do not even have the courage to dream.

PAP – Training in Poland



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