the founder of the prize Alfred Nobel is a character unusual. His talents, he might obdzielić a few people, and he invented dynamite is only one of hundreds of his inventions. Nobel was also engaged in literary work. Wrote poetry, wrote the novel and drama. Friends, for example, with Victor Hugo and others literatami in Paris. Traveled a lot, and actually lived out of a suitcase, on which was pointed out Hugo, calling the inventor of the “richest wagabundą Europe”. Inventor he is also interested in public Affairs, associated in particular with the world in the world.
His fortune earned rewards at dynamicie, decided to pass on the award in the field of medicine, chemistry, physics, literature and for activity on strengthening peace. Such record found in the Covenant signed by Nobel on 27 November 1895.
Just over a year later, on 10 December 1896 Alfred Nobel died of a heart attack at his home in San Remo. Problems with the execution of the will, has led to the fact that the awards received for the first time only in 1901, the fifth anniversary of the death of the founder. A year earlier, the executor of Nobel – two young engineers, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Liljeqvist – form the Foundation of the Nobel prize, which was to manage money. In carrying out the will of the inventor was supported by their nephew, Alfred – Emmanuel Nobel.
From 1901 year, winners are selected every year in the field: literature, physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology. As long is awarded the Award Offer. Alfred Nobel has not established a prize to economists that recognized only in 1968. Its founder is the Bank of Sweden.
in keeping with tradition, the Noble awarded to the winners in subsequent anniversary of the death of the founder – December 10, and announced about two months earlier.
according to Statistics, Nobel prize winners have an average of 59 years. This is below the average for Nobel prize winners in physics – 55, chemistry – 58, as well as medicine and physiology 58. The longer you have to wait the Nobel peace Prize is taking it from them on average 61 years and Nobel laureates–writers – an average of 65 years. Hit records, however, economists, who, on receiving the award have an average of 67 years.
Not all have to wait so long ” is a prestigious award. Noblistką is the youngest winner of the Nobel peace Prize 2014. – Pakistanka Malala Yousafzai, who at the time of receiving the award she was 17 years old. The oldest is still the winner Leonid Hurwicz, who in 2007 when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in economic Sciences, he was 90 years old.
Maria Sklodowska-Curie and other multinobliści
in accordance with the will of the founder, the prize in this area may be divided between more than three people. From 1901 to 2015. the difference most often caught but there were some winners. Less total prize shared by the writers – 104 was the amount only for himself, but only four times the prize had to be divided into two will be rewarded.
a handful of scientists and organizations marked more than once. In this circle, he, in particular, Maria Sklodowska-Curie, who in 1903. received the Nobel Prize in physics with her husband Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerelem, and in 1911. chemistry – the study of radioactivity and the discovery of new elements: polonium and radium. The only scientist who twice received the Nobel Prize alone, American physicist and chemist Linus Pauling, in 1954. he received a diploma in chemistry and in 1962. The Nobel Peace Prize.
Three times Nobel Peace prize nagradzano international Committee of the red cross.
the First scientific prizes were awarded in 1901: in physics – a German scientist Wilhelm Roentgen, discoverer of x-rays and their practical application in chemistry, Dutchman Jacob van Hoff, the founder of modern physical chemistry, in medicine, a German bacteriologist Emil Behring, the maker of numerous serums and vaccines, for example, against tetanus and diphtheria.
Sometimes the prizes were not awarded
the Idea of Alfred Nobel endured a turbulent twentieth century. During the last century several times but was not awarded – because of the hostilities, the lack of candidates or formal deficiencies.
In ponadstuletniej history of the Nobel Prize was not without mistakes. Have not received rewards, while for re-nomination, a French mathematician, naturalist and philosopher Henri Poincarre, one of the most outstanding scientists of late XIX-early XX century. The Creator of the theory of relativity, albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for a minor to his credit studies on the phenomenon fotoelektryczności.
the Nobel Committee has drawn up busted in 2011, when he decided that the award in medicine and physiology deserves three scientists: Bruce Beutler, Jules Hoffmann and Ralph Steinman. After the verdict was, however, that Steinman died on 30 September, three days before the announcement of the winners Nobli, what is not known to the Committee.
there was a big problem, since in accordance with the current since 1974, the rule of awarding the Nobel prize winner of the award can only be in life. On the same day in the evening, the Foundation Noblowska decided, however, that Steinman will remain a winner. “The Nobel Prize was awarded to Ralph Steinmanowi in good faith, assuming that the winner is alive,” said the Fund.